Heat Transfer Laboratory Equipments - HT 10

CONDUCTION SECTION

Heat Transfer Laboratory
Critical Radius of Insulating Material - 10050

Composite Walls Apparatus - 10010

Demonstrates the thermal conductivity at various heat inputs and different configurations. The apparatus consists of a heater sandwitched between two identical composite slabs. Water cooled heat sinks, to steady state heat transfer condition achieved earlier. Provides MS, Brass and Bakelite plates and necessary meters on control panel.

Heat Transfer Through Lagged Pipe - 10020

Explains the Thermal conductivity and characteristics of Lagging material, using three concentric pipes and a heater and two types of lagging materials are filled up. thermocouples and dimmer state measures various temperatures and heat inputs.

Heat Pipe Demonstrator - 10030

Demonstrates super conductivity of heat pipe as compared to copper pipe as good conductor of heat and to stainless steel pipe as same material of construction. The unit provides Heat pipe, copper pipe & stainless steel pipe. All the pipes are heated at one end & water tank at other end. To find out isothermal operation of heat pipe as compared to other conductors by use of thermocouples.

Hydrualic Analogy of Analogy of Heat Conduction - 10041



Electrical Aanalogy of Heat Conduction - 10042


Critical Radius of Insulating Material - 10050

To find out critical radius of insulation, ratio of thermal conductivity and outside heat transfer co-efficient. The unit consists of four G. I. pipes provided with plaster of paris insulation on out side surface and heater inside, having separate input control. Input to heaters is measured by common voltmeter & ammeter.

Unsteady State of Heat Transfer Apparatus - 10060

An example of an unsteady state problem of interest is the heat transfer of a solid body being quenched in a fluid, the apparatus consist of a small cylinder, heated by a hot bath till steady state reaches then quenehed in air or water bath. So, temp of cylinder is a function of time, heating and cooling of cylinder are unsteady.

CONVECTION SECTION

Pin Fine Apparatus - 10070

Demonstrates experiments with fins in natural and forced convection and various flow rates, various heat inputs and with fins of different material. Unit consist a pin type fin, heated by a heater, blower draws air over the fin,Thermocouple measures temperature. Fins- Brass, Aluminium and M.S.Control panel with necessary instruments, Air flow duct with blower.The unit is provided with antirust an attractive powder coating.

Natural Convection - 10080

To study over all heat transfer coefficient and local heat transfer coefficients in natural convection at various heat transfer rates. Vertical brass pipe heated by heater, the pipe looses heat to atmosphere by natural convection. It is filled in an enclosure to provide undisturbed natural convection currents.Thermocouple to measure local temperature. Control panel with necessary measuring instruments.

Heat Pipe Demonstrator - 10030

Demonstrates super conductivity of heat pipe as compared to copper pipe as good conductor of heat and to stainless steel pipe as same material of construction. The unit provides Heat pipe, copper pipe & stainless steel pipe. All the pipes are heated at one end & water tank at other end. To find out isothermal operation of heat pipe as compared to other conductors by use of thermocouples.

Forced Convection Apparatus - 10090

To calculate local and over all heat transfer coefficient in forced convection at various air flow rates and various heat flux values. The unit consists of a circular pipe loosing heat by forced convection to air, being forced through it. constant heat flux is added to pipe by heater provided with input control. Thermocouple to measure a various pipe surface temperature and air inlet and outlet of test section. The unit is provided with antirust an attractive powder coating

Specific Heat of Air Apparatus - 10100

To determine the specific heat of air at different temperatures air quantity and heater input can be varied. A blower delivers the required quantity air, air passing through the pipe, heated by heater, temp of entering and leaving test section are measured by thermocouples. By knowing heater input and mass flow of air, specific heat of air at
onstant pressure can be calculated.

Heat Trnasfer In Agitated Vessels - 10110

To study overall heat transfer coefficient and effect of agitator speed and water flow through coil. a stainless steel vessel, inside which copper tube helical coil is fitted, fluid in the vessel is kept at desired temp, cold fluid picks up heat from surrounding hot fluid. varic to vary agitator speed and to vary input to heaters.

RADIATION SECTION

Emissivity Measurement Apparatus - 10120

The unit consists a test plate and a black plate, as a comparator, all the physical properties,dimensions, & temp. are equal, heat losses from the both plates are same except radiation losses. Input difference will be due to difference in emissivity. Input given through separate dimmer so temp. of both can be kept equal. Emissivity can determined over a wide range of temperatures. The unit is provided with antirust an attractive powder coating

Stefan Boltzmann Apparatus - 10130

Determination of Stefan Boltzmann, constant, consists of a hemisphere surrounded by hot water obtained from a water heating tank. Blackend disc is inserted at the center of hemisphere. Heat is transferred into the disc from the hemisphere by radiation & its temperature begins to rise & Stefan Boltzmann constant is determined.

Heat Transfer Through Vaccum - 10140

Determination of heat transfer in radition or Stefan boltzmann.leak tight evacuated cylinder provided with heater at center, heat given by heater is transmitted to cylinder wall & wall temperature raise, which is kept steady by circulating water. If Stefan boltzmann constant is assumed to be known, then heat transfer can be shown proportional fourth power of temp. if heat transfer is known, Stefan boltzmann constant is determined Control panel with necessary measuring instruments.

BOILING & CONDENSATION SECTION

Condensation In Drop and Film Forms - 10150

To study heat transfer coefficients in dropwise & filmwise condensation, glass cylinder at the top of which two condensers hang and steam inlet at bottom, water is circulated through the condensers from common inlet.Transparent glass cylinder allows visualization of condensation process. Rotameter for water flow, Pressure gauge for steam pressure, temp. indicator for various temperatures.

Two Phase Heat Transfer Apparatus - 10160

To study visualization of two phase of liquid viz. boiling & condensation. Liquid R-11 in which a hot cylinder is immersed. Boiling of liquid, observed over heater surface upto nucleate boiling phase. Condenser coil at the top of cylinder. Vapor is condensed to liquid. Measurements- pressure of vapor-pressure gauge, water flow-Rotameter, Control of heater surface temp.-Dimmer & Liquid temp.-thermometers.

Critical Heat Flux Apparatus - 10170

To study of boiling heat transfer. A nichrome wire immersed in water and heated by passing current through it. input to nichrome wire, controlled by dimmer stat. Increasing wire input current increases & at critical heat flux the wire brakes. It is measured on meter. Magnifying glass and lamp to visualise natural connection and pool boiling and separate heater coil in water allows for various water temperature.

HEAT EXCHANGER SECTION

Cross Flow Heat Exchanger

Cross Flow Heat Exchanger - 10190


Concentric Tube Tube Heat Exchanger (Plain Tube Type) - 10181

To determination of heat transfer rate, LMTD, heat transfer coefficient and effectiveness of heat exchanger. Unit consists of a copper tube inside a G I pipe, hot water from geyser flows through the inner tube and cold water flows through outer tubes. Hot water flows in one direction, cold water can be changed parallel or counter. temperature and flow rate of water measured.

Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger (Finned Tube Type) - 10182

To determination of heat exchanger, heat transfer coefficient, LMTD and effectiveness of the exchanger. Unit consists of a G I pipe, copper pipe with longitudinal fins over the periphery is fitted inside. Hot fluid is water obtained from geyser. Flows through the copper pipe. Cold fluid is air. flows over the fins. Direction of hot water is fixed, direction of air can be changed. Various measurement are provided.

Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger (Plain & Finned Tube Comparator Type) - 10183

To compare the performance of finned tube with plain tube heat exchanger. two heat exchangers operating Operating in parallel and are concentric tube type. Inner tube carries hot fluid and cold luid flows outside. Hot fluid is water and obtained from heaters. Cold fluid is air supplied by blower to both exchangers. one exchanger with plain inner tube & other with finned tube.

Cross Flow Heat Exchanger (Air to Air Type) - 10190

To determine LMTD , heat transfer rate and effectiveness of heat exchanger.cross flow heat exchanger is air to air type.air flow supplied by blower. Hot air obtained passing air over a bank of finned tubes. Hot air flows through a tubes while cold air flows over the tubes at right angle to hot air.

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers (Water to Water Type) - 10201

To determine heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient, LMTD. The unit consist a two design ,mild steel shell houses the copper pipes. End box for shell which carriers a baffle at the center to make the heat exchanger of two pass type. cold fluid passes out side the tubes in the shell. Hot water flows inside the tubes. Temp. of hot water & cold fluid measured by thermometer.flow rates and temp. of hot and cold fluid can measured.

Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers (Air to Water Type) - 10202

To determine Heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient, LMTD & effectiveness of heat exchanger in laminar as well as turbulent flow of air. A m..s. shell,in which copper tubes are fitted, baffle in the end box make the tube arrangement two pass type. Cold fluid is air enters the shell and flows over the tube. Hot fluid is water obtained from geyser & flows through the tubes. 25% cut buffles are provided in the path of air. Measuring tank for water flow rate, Orifice with water manometer for air flow, thermometer for inlet and out let temperature


HEAT EXCHANGER SECTION

Plate Type Heat Exchangers - 10210

To determine heat transfer rate, LMTD, heat transfer coefficients and effectiveness of heat exchanger.The unit consists cold and hot fluid obtained from geyser. Inlet and outlet connections are positioned to make the Exchanger counter flow type. Hot and cold fluid pass between alternate plates.

Regenerative Heat Exchanger Apparatus - 10220

The unit consists of two columns filled with steel balls. Two blowers are provided for hot and cold air. The columns are filled with steel balls One column is getting heated by hot air while other by cold air. Thus alternately columns are heated and cooled and operation is continuous.


THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY SECTION

Thermal Conductivity of Metal Rod - 10230

Determines thermal conductivity of metal rod. a copper bar, heated at one end, heat sink at other end, teat section of bar is properly insulated & thermocouples are attached for temperature. Heat conducted through the section of bar is measured by heat collection in water cooled heat sink.A panel compresing of controls and measurement is provided.

Thermal Conductivity of Insulating Power - 10240

Determines thermal conductivity of insulating powder by sphere in sphere method. A copper sphere in which a mica heater is fitted. the sphere is surrounded by another bigger sphere and between the two sphere,the test insulating powder is filled. Heat of the heater radically flows outwards in all directions through powder. temp. Across the powder are measured. by knowing input to the heater conductivity of powder can be dtermined.

Thermal Conductivity of Liquid - 10250

An electrical heater sandwitched between aluminum plates. heat loss from hot plate is prevented by using two guard heaters and heat of hot plate is made to flow through specimen. cold plate on opposite face of liquid removes heat from liquid by circulation of water. Input to heaters can varied & measured. Digital temp Indicator to measure temperature.

Themal Conductivity of Insulating Slabs - By 10260 Guarded Hot Plate Method

To determine thermal conductivity of specimen,main heater and radial heater sandwitched between copper plates. Specimen in the form of slabs of equal thickness are placed on either sides of heaters and cooling plates. other side of specimen water is circulated. Radial guard heaters ensures all heat of main heater passes axially through the specimen, collected by cooling plates. By knowing the themp. And heat input, thermal conductivity of specimen can be calculated.

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GASES - 10270